Referencing

REFERENCING

'Referencing is the process of acknowledging other people’s work when you have used it in your assignment or research. It allows the reader to locate your source material as quickly and easily as possible so that they can read these sources themselves and verify the validity of your arguments. Referencing provides the link between what you write and the evidence on which it is based.' (Pears and Shields, 2019, p.1).

You need to reference the sources used in your research report in two ways: in the body of your text (in-text citation) and at the end of your research report (reference list). A reference list is the list of references cited in the book. A bibliography is a reference list, plus the material that the authors have read writing the book, but not actually cited in the book. For example, you might have read 20 books while writing your research report, but used sections of 10 of them in your work. The 20 books will be your bibliography, whereas the 10 books will be your reference list. According to Pears and Shields (2019, p.1), 'The reference list only includes the sources cited in your text. It is not the same thing as a bibliography, which uses the same referencing style, but also includes all material (for example, background readings) used in the preparation of your work'. Bibliographies are mainly used in dissertations for Master's degrees and theses for PhD degrees, but you should know what they are, because you will encounter them in several of your textbooks. In your research report, you will need to include a reference list.

Williams and Carroll (2009, p.5) point out the ways in which readers can use your reference:

'[Readers] can:

1 go and find the source themselves if they want to

2 understand the nature of your source

3 form their own view about the use you make of it.

And, of course, if your reader is a tutor, s/he can see what you have read and what sources you have used for your assignment. That helps them to assess the quality of your work and the range of your research.'

PLAGIARISM

'Plagiarism describes the unacknowledged use of someone else’s work. This includes material or ideas from any (published or unpublished) sources, whether print, electronic (even if freely available on the internet) or audiovisual. Using the words or ideas of others without citing and referencing them would be construed as plagiarism, and is a very serious academic offence. At the end of the day, it is regarded as the stealing of intellectual property' (Pears and Shields, 2019, p.5).

PARAPHRASING

'Paraphrase [is] restating of someone else’s thoughts or ideas in your own words. You must always cite your source when paraphrasing' (Pears and Shields, 2019, p.245).

ZOTEROBIB

Free reference management software, available at: https://zbib.org/

HOW TO REFERENCE (HARVARD REFERENCING STYLE)

The following text and examples are from Cite them right (2019), available at: https://www.citethemrightonline.com/

BOOKS

Printed books

The increasing availability of ebooks in identical form to print has rendered the need for a distinction between print and electronic versions unnecessary. If the online source includes all the elements seen in print versions (that is, publication details, edition and page numbers), reference in the same way as print.

Only include the edition number if it is not the first or revised edition.

Citation order:

  • Author/editor

  • Year of publication (in round brackets)

  • Title (in italics)

  • Place of publication: Publisher

  • Series and volume number (where relevant)

Example: book with one author

In-text citation

According to Bell (2014), the most important part of the research process is ...

Reference list

Bell, J. (2014) Doing your research project. Maidenhead: Open University Press.

Example: book with two or three authors

In-text citation

Goddard and Barrett (2016, p. 17) noted that 'teenagers are vulnerable'.

Reference list

Goddard, J. and Barrett, S. (2016) The health needs of young people leaving care. Norwich: University of East Anglia, School of Social Work and Psychosocial Studies.

Example: book with four or more authors

In-text citation

This was proved by Young et al. (2015, pp. 21–23) ...

Reference list

Young, H.D. et al. (2015) Sears and Zemansky's university physics. San Francisco, CA: Addison-Wesley.

Or, if your institution requires referencing of all named authors:

Young, H.D., Freedman, R.A., Sandin, T.R. and Ford, A.L. (2015) Sears and Zemansky's university physics. San Francisco, CA: Addison-Wesley.

Example: book with an editor

In-text citation

The formation of professions was examined in Prest (2014).

Reference list

Prest, W. (ed.) (2014) The professions in early modern England. London: Croom Helm.

Example: book with author(s) and editor(s)

In-text citation

Orksun (2017, p. 22) stated ...

Reference list

Orksun, B. (2017) Healthcare management. 7th UK edn. Edited by B. Jones and D. Kirk. London: Medical Press Ltd.

Example: book with no author

In-text citation

The Percy tomb has been described as 'one of the master-pieces of medieval European art' (Treasures of Britain and treasures of Ireland, 1990, p. 84).

Reference list

Treasures of Britain and treasures of Ireland (1990) London: Reader's Digest Association Ltd.

For second, later and revised editions use the following:

Citation order:

  • Author/editor

  • Year of publication (in round brackets)

  • Title (in italics)

  • Edition (edition number and/or rev. edn.)

  • Place of publication: Publisher

  • Series and volume number (where relevant)

Example: later edition

In-text citation

The excellent study by Waugh (2015) ...

Reference list

Waugh, D. (2015) The new wider world. 5th edn. Cheltenham: Nelson Thornes.

Examples: revised edition

In-text citation

The beautiful work by Moxon (2013) ...

Reference list

Moxon, J. (2013) The art of joinery. Rev. edn. Fort Mitchell, KY: Lost Art Press.

In-text citation

Steinberg's analysis (2016, p. 45) ...

Reference list

Steinberg, E.L. (2016) Court music of Henry V. 4th rev. edn. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Electronic books (ebooks)

When an ebook looks like a printed book, with publication details and pagination, you should reference as a printed book.

Citation order:

  • Author/editor

  • Year of publication (in round brackets)

  • Title of book (in italics)

  • Place of publication: Publisher

Example

In-text citation

In their analysis, Hremiak and Hudson (2011, pp. 36–39) ...

Reference list

Hremiak, A. and Hudson, T. (2011) Understanding learning and teaching in secondary schools. Harlow: Pearson Longman.

On some personal electronic devices, specific ebook pagination details may not be available, so use the information you do have, such as loc, %, chapter/page/paragraph – for example, (Richards, 2012, 67%), (Winters, 2011, ch. 4, p. 12).

Citation order:

  • Author/editor

  • Year of publication (in round brackets)

  • Title of book (in italics)

  • DOI or Available at: URL (Accessed: date)

Example

In-text citation

Arthur's argument with the council was interrupted by the Vogon Constructor Fleet (Adams, 1979, loc 876).

Reference list

Adams, D. (1979) The hitchhiker's guide to the galaxy. Available at: http://www.amazon.co.uk/kindle-ebooks (Accessed: 29 January 2018).

Chapters or sections of edited books

Citation order:

  • Author of the chapter/section (surname followed by initials)

  • Year of publication (in round brackets)

  • Title of chapter/section (in single quotation marks)

  • 'in' plus author/editor of book

  • Title of book (in italics)

  • Place of publication: Publisher

  • Page reference

Example

In-text citation

The view proposed by Franklin (2012, p. 88) ...

Reference list

Franklin, A.W. (2012) 'Management of the problem', in Smith, S.M. (ed.) The maltreatment of children. Lancaster: MTP, pp. 83–95.

JOURNALS

Journal articles

Many serials have print and online equivalents (either with all details the same or with small variations, for example page numbers). Or they may just be available online or in print editions.

As always, you should reference the version that you are using. Students and tutors can access academic journal articles through password-protected institutional databases, but other readers may not have access to these.

Therefore, as long as the serial reference provides enough bibliographic information for the article to be located by the reader, other elements – for example, [Online], database title, and URL – no longer need to be included.

However, include the URL or DOI if you are using an article that is only available online (see the example below).

Citation order:

  • Author (surname followed by initials)

  • Year of publication (in round brackets)

  • Title of article (in single quotation marks)

  • Title of journal (in italics – capitalise first letter of each word in title, except for linking words such as and, of, the, for)

  • Issue information (that is, volume (unbracketed) and, where applicable, part number, month or season (all in round brackets))

  • Page reference (if available)

If accessed online:

  • DOI or Available at: URL (if required) (Accessed: date)

Example: electronic or print or both

In-text citation

In their review of the literature (Norrie et al., 2012) ...

Reference list

Norrie, C. et al. (2012) 'Doing it differently? A review of literature on teaching reflective practice across health and social care professions', Reflective Practice, 13(4), pp. 565–578.

Or, if your institution requires referencing of all named authors:

Norrie, C., Hammond, J., D'Avray, L., Collington, V. and Fook, J. (2012) 'Doing it differently? A review of literature on teaching reflective practice across health and social care professions', Reflective Practice, 13(4), pp. 565–578.

Example: electronic article with DOI

In-text citation

Shirazi's review article (2010) ...

Reference list

Shirazi, T. (2010) 'Successful teaching placements in secondary schools: achieving QTS practical handbooks', European Journal of Teacher Education, 33(3), pp. 323–326. doi:10.1080/02619761003602246.

Example: electronic article with no print equivalent (URL and no DOI)

In-text citation

It was noted in Mueller's study (1987) ...

Reference list

Mueller, N. (1987) 'Epidemiologic studies assessing the role of the Epstein-Barr virus in Hodgkin's disease', The Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine, 60(4), pp. 321–332. Available at: http://nrs.harvard.edu/urn-3:HUL.InstRepos:4582569 (Accessed: 5 February 2021).

DIGITAL & INTERNET

Web pages with individual authors

Citation order:

  • Author

  • Year that the site was published/last updated (in round brackets)

  • Title of web page (in italics)

  • Available at: URL (Accessed: date)

Example

In-text citation

Burton (2012) provided information for the visit.

Reference list

Burton, P.A. (2012) Castles of Spain. Available at: http://www.castlesofspain.co.uk/ (Accessed: 14 October 2018).

Web pages with organisations as authors

Citation order:

  • Organisation

  • Year that the site was published/last updated (in round brackets)

  • Title of web page (in italics)

  • Available at: URL (Accessed: date)

Example

In-text citation

After identifying symptoms (National Health Service, 2018) ...

Reference list

National Health Service (2018) Check your symptoms. Available at: http://www.nhsdirect.nhs.uk/checksymptoms (Accessed: 17 October 2018).

Web pages with no authors

Use the title of the web page.

Citation order:

  • Title of the web page (in italics)

  • Year that the site was published/last updated (in round brackets)

  • Available at: URL (Accessed: date)

Example

In-text citation

Illustrations of the houses can be found online (Palladio's Italian villas, 2005).

Reference list

Palladio's Italian villas (2005) Available at: http://www.boglewood.com/palladio/ (Accessed: 23 August 2018).

Web pages with no authors or titles

If no author or title can be identified, you should use the web page’s URL. It may be possible to shorten a very long URL, as long as the route remains clear, but it may be necessary to give the full URL, even in your citation. If a web page has no author or title, you might question whether or not it is suitable for academic work.

Citation order:

  • URL

  • Year that the site was published/last updated (in round brackets)

  • (Accessed: date)

Example

In-text citation

Video files may need to be compressed (http://www.newmediarepublic.com/dvideo/compression.html, 2018).

Reference list

http://www.newmediarepublic.com/dvideo/compression.html (2018) (Accessed: 14 July 2018).

Web pages with no dates

If the web page has no obvious date of publication/revision, use the Author (no date) and the date you accessed the page. You might question how useful undated information is to your research as it may be out of date.

Citation order:

  • Author

  • (no date)

  • Title of web page (in italics)

  • Available at: URL (Accessed: date)

Example

In-text citation

Compression may be required (New Media Republic, no date).

Reference list

New Media Republic (no date) Compression. Available at: http://www.newmediarepublic.com/dvideo/compression.html (Accessed: 16 June 2018).

You should not use web pages for academic work which have no obvious author, title or date.

Blogs

Blogs (weblogs) and vlogs (video logs) are produced by individuals and organisations to provide updates on issues of interest or concern. Be aware that because blogs/vlogs are someone’s opinions, they may not provide objective, reasoned discussion of an issue. Use blogs/vlogs in conjunction with reputable sources. Note that due to the informality of the internet, many authors give first names or aliases. Use the name they have used in your reference.

Citation order:

  • Author of message

  • Year that the site was published/last updated (in round brackets)

  • Title of message (in single quotation marks)

  • Title of internet site (in italics)

  • Day/month of posted message

  • Available at: URL (Accessed: date)

Example

In-text citation

Nick Robinson (2014) noted the 'Cameron Direct' phenomenon.

Reference list

Robinson, N. (2014) 'Cameron Direct', Nick Robinson's newslog, 4 June. Available at: http://www.bbc.co.uk/blogs/nickrobinson/ (Accessed: 11 October 2018).

Facebook

Citation order:

  • Author (if available; if not, use title)

  • Year that the page was published/last updated (in round brackets)

  • Title of page (in italics)

  • [Facebook]

  • Day/month of posted message

  • Available at: URL (Accessed: date)

Example

In-text citation

The campaign had over 7,000 members in less than one week (Tynemouth outdoor pool, 2015).

Reference list

Tynemouth outdoor pool (2015) [Facebook] 29 August. Available at: http://www.facebook.com (Accessed: 31 August 2018).

Instagram

Citation order:

  • Author (Instagram account holder/poster)

  • Year posted (in round brackets)

  • Title of post (in single quotation marks)

  • [Instagram]

  • Day/month of posted message

  • Available at: URL (Accessed: date)

Example

In-text citation

He offered her a slice of cake (Tusk, 2018) ...

Reference list

Tusk, D. (2018) ‘A piece of cake perhaps?’ [Instagram]. 20 September. Available at: https://www.instagram.com/p/Bn8Luwbjzf9/ (Accessed: 7 February 2019).

Snapchat

Citation order:

  • Author (if available; if not, use title)

  • Year that the page was published/last updated (in round brackets)

  • [Snapchat]

  • Day/month of posted message

Example

In-text citation

The meeting was arranged by Kelvin (2018).

Reference list

Kelvin, D. (2018) [Snapchat] 14 August.

Twitter

Citation order:

  • Author

  • Year tweet posted (in round brackets)

  • full text of tweet (unless it is very long, then use ellipsis to shorten)

  • [Twitter]

  • Day/month tweet posted

  • Available at: URL (Accessed: date)

Example

In-text citation

Laura Kuenssberg (2018) tweeted on the party conference.

Reference list

Kuenssberg, L. [@bbclaurak] (2018) anyone might imagine that inside he’s a tiny bit pleased [Twitter] 25 September. Available at: https://twitter.com/bbclaurak/status/1044553972277817344 (Accessed: 19 December 2018).

MEDIA & ART

Newspaper articles

Where the author (byline) of a newspaper article is identified, use the following citation order:

  • Author/byline

  • Year of publication (in round brackets)

  • Title of article (in single quotation marks)

  • Title of newspaper (in italics – capitalise first letter of each word in title, except for linking words such as and, of, the, for)

  • Edition if required (in round brackets)

  • Day and month

  • Page reference (if available)

If accessed online:

  • DOI or Available at: URL (Accessed: date)

Example: electronic or print article

In-text citation

Financial incentives were offered to graduates (Mansell and Bloom, 2018).

Reference list

Mansell, W. and Bloom, A. (2018) '£10,000 carrot to tempt physics experts', The Guardian, 20 June, p. 5.

Photographs from the internet

Citation order:

  • Photographer

  • Year of publication (in round brackets)

  • Title of photograph (in italics)

  • Available at: URL (Accessed: date)

Example

In-text citation

His beautiful photograph (Kitto, 2013) ...

Reference list

Kitto, J. (2013) Golden sunset. Available at: http://www.jameskitto.co.uk/photo_1827786.html (Accessed: 14 June 2018).

Podcasts

Although podcasts can be downloaded onto portable devices, you should reference where they were published or displayed for download rather than trying to give your electronic device as a source.

Citation order:

  • Author/presenter

  • Year that the site was published/last updated (in round brackets)

  • Title of podcast (in italics)

  • [Podcast]

  • Day/month of posted message

  • DOI or Available at: URL (Accessed: date)

Example: with author/presenter

In-text citation

Verity et al. (2018) noted that the Olympics had a detrimental effect on sales.

Reference list

Verity, A. et al. (2018) Retail sales figures [Podcast]. 4 September. Available at: http://www.bbc.co.uk/podcasts/series/money (Accessed: 25 September 2018).

Or, if your institution requires referencing of all named authors:

Verity, A., Laurie, D., Clark, M. and Naylor J. (2018) Retail sales figures [Podcast]. 4 September. Available at: http://www.bbc.co.uk/podcasts/series/money (Accessed: 25 September 2018).

Example: without author

In-text citation

Internal networks are critical (Oracle Business Sense, 2013) ...

Reference list

Oracle Business Sense (2013) Structure [Podcast]. 12 June. Available at: http://www.guardian.co.uk/podcast/0,,329509709,00.xml (Accessed: 27 June 2013).

Online video sharing platforms

If you wish to refer to a specific time within a video, use a time code in your in-text reference, with the format minutes: seconds.

Citation order:

  • Name of person/organisation posting video

  • Year video posted (in round brackets)

  • Title of film or programme (in italics)

  • Date uploaded (if available)

  • DOI

  • OR Available at: URL or name of streaming service/app (Accessed: date)

Example

In-text citation for specific part of video

When mixing the plaster (Leponline, 2017, 02:00) ...

Reference list

Leponline (2017) Ask the experts – plastering a wall. 4 December. Available at: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=J9wpceIlxCU (Accessed: 13 January 2017).

RESEARCH

Company annual reports

Citation order:

  • Author or organisation

  • Year of publication (in round brackets)

  • Title of report (in italics)

  • Place of publication: Publisher

Or if accessed on the internet:

  • DOI or Available at: URL (Accessed: date)

Example

In-text citation

The company's profits expanded (BSkyB Ltd, 2017, p. 23) ...

Marks and Spencer Group (2017) addressed concerns about its investments ...

Reference list

BSkyB Ltd. (2017) Annual report 2017. Available at: http://www.annualreports.co.uk/HostedData/AnnualReports/PDF/LSE_BSY_2017.pdf (Accessed: 8 January 2019).

Marks and Spencer Group PLC (2017) Our approach to human rights. Available at: https://corporate.marksandspencer.com/documents/imported-documents/plan-a-ourapproach/m-and-s-human-rightsreport-june-2017 (Accessed: 8 January 2018).

Market research reports from online databases

Citation order:

  • Publishing organisation

  • Year of publication/last updated (in round brackets)

  • Title of extract (in italics)

  • DOI or Available at: URL (Accessed: date)

Example

In-text citation

Mintel Oxygen (2016) noted problems in the market ...

Reference list

Mintel Oxygen (2016) Car insurance UK. Available at: http://academic.mintel.com.ezproxy.mdx.ac.uk (Accessed: 5 January 2018).

REFERENCES

Cite them right (2019) Available at: https://www.citethemrightonline.com/ (Accessed: 2 August 2021).

Pears, R. and Shields, G. (2019) Cite them right: The essential referencing guide, London: Red Globe Press.

Williams, K. and Carroll, J. (2009) Referencing & understanding plagiarism, Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.